what is vulnerability, guide to finding vulnerabilities

What is Vulnerability: A Comprehensive Guide to Protecting Your Systems


The increasing reliance on the internet has led to a rise in the number of devices, systems, and assets connected to it. However, this has also created a gold mine for attackers who can exploit the vulnerabilities present in these systems. In this blog, we will delve into the concept of vulnerability in cybersecurity and explore different types, categories, and examples to help you understand the topic better.

What are Vulnerabilities?

A vulnerability is a weakness or a flaw in a web, cloud, or mobile application system that can be exploited by cybercriminals to gain unauthorized access to a computer system. After exploiting a vulnerability, a cyberattack can run malicious code, install malware, and even steal sensitive data. Attackers often look for different vulnerabilities to exploit and manipulate systems for their personnel gain and agendas.

Different Types of Security Vulnerabilities

It's important to stay informed about the latest vulnerabilities and security threats to protect your systems and sensitive information. Some of the most commonly seen vulnerabilities are listed below:

1.SQL Injections:

Small codes like SQL queries are injected to manipulate systems and gain access through web applications. Once loopholes are identified, they send malware through vulnerable areas to obtain sensitive information.

2. Cross-Site-Scripting:

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) can lead to stolen sensitive information, such as login credentials, or malicious actions being performed on behalf of the user. It allows an attacker to inject malicious scripts into web pages viewed by other users. XSS attacks can occur when user input is not properly sanitized before being displayed on a web page.

3. Misconfigurations

Misconfigurations refer to any glitches or gaps in the security measures adopted that can lead to leaving valuable information virtually unprotected. This vulnerability often occurs due to a lack of proper access management, and even security group misconfigurations.

4. Broken Authentication and Authorization Measures

Broken authentication and authorization measures, reusing old passwords, and writing them down can all leave the assets vulnerable to exposure. Not having multifactor authentication measures deployed is a major cause of concern regarding vulnerabilities. Wrongful, previous employee authorizations can also lead to breaches occurring.

5. Cross-Site Request Forgery

Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) allows an attacker to trick a user’s web browser into making unintended actions on a website, such as making purchases or changing account information.

6. File inclusion vulnerabilities

File inclusion vulnerabilities allow attackers to include files from an external server or directory, which can result in remote code execution and unauthorized access to sensitive information.

7. Remote code execution

Remote code execution (RCE) vulnerabilities allow attackers to execute malicious code on a target system remotely, enabling them to take complete control of the system.

8. Denial of service

A denial of service (DoS) vulnerability occurs when attackers flood a system or network with traffic, causing it to crash or become unavailable to legitimate users.

9. Zero-day vulnerabilities

Zero-day vulnerabilities refer to security flaws that are unknown to the vendor or the public. Attackers often exploit these vulnerabilities before they can be fixed, making them a significant threat to organizations.

10. Man-in-the-middle attacks

This type of attack involves intercepting communication between two parties and stealing sensitive information, such as login credentials or financial data.

11. Privilege escalation

Privilege escalation vulnerabilities allow attackers to gain elevated privileges on a system, enabling them to access sensitive information and execute malicious code.

12. Buffer overflow

This vulnerability occurs when a program tries to store more data in a buffer than it can handle, causing the program to crash or allowing attackers to execute malicious code.

Exploring Different Categories of Vulnerabilities

Like different types of Vulnerabilities, there are also different categories of Vulnerabilities. Below are are the different categories of Vulnerabilities:

Category 1: Hardware Vulnerabilities

Hardware vulnerabilities refer to issues that impact the physical infrastructure of the system. They can range from humidity to poor security and everything in between. Examples include dust, natural disasters, poor encryption, and hardware vulnerabilities. Hardware security is a crucial aspect of physical security, as it encompasses the assets that need to be protected.

Category 2: Software Vulnerabilities

Software vulnerabilities refer to weaknesses or flaws within the software or an application. These include injections, insufficient testing, flaws in design, and memory violations, among others. Exploiting these vulnerabilities can result in unauthorized access, data breaches, and system crashes.

Category 3: Network Vulnerabilities

Network vulnerabilities refer to weaknesses within the network architecture that can be exploited by attackers. Examples include man-in-the-middle attacks, lack of protection for communication lines, and lack of default authentication. Network vulnerabilities can be extremely damaging as they can provide attackers with access to critical data and systems.

Category 4: Personnel Vulnerabilities

Personnel vulnerabilities refer to weaknesses caused by the users or employees within the organization. Examples include a lack of security awareness, weak passwords, not changing passwords regularly, and divulging credentials or sensitive information to questionable sources or individuals.

Understanding the categories of vulnerabilities is crucial for identifying potential security risks and implementing effective security measures. However, it is also important to understand the root cause of these vulnerabilities. In the next section, we will explore the Severity Levels of Vulnerabilities.

Severity Levels of Vulnerabilities

vulnerabilities can be classified based on their severity levels. Severity levels help to prioritize which vulnerabilities should be addressed first, and how urgently they need to be fixed. Typically, there are three or four levels of severity:

Level 1: Low Severity

These vulnerabilities pose a minor threat and have a low potential impact on the system or application. They can often be addressed in the next scheduled patch or update.

Level 2: Medium Severity

These vulnerabilities have a moderate impact on the system or application and require immediate attention. They should be patched or fixed as soon as possible.

Level 3: High Severity

These vulnerabilities have a significant impact on the system or application, and can potentially lead to data breaches or other serious security incidents. They require urgent attention and should be fixed immediately.

Level 4: Critical Severity

These vulnerabilities pose a critical threat to the system or application and can cause severe damage or complete compromise of the system. They require immediate action and should be addressed as soon as possible, often through emergency patches or updates.

The general principle is to prioritize the vulnerabilities based on their potential impact on the system and the urgency of the fix needed. In the next section, we will explore the major reasons behind the arising of vulnerabilities.

Common Reasons for Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities

Cybersecurity vulnerabilities can occur due to several reasons. The most common ones are:

1. Commonality

Systems with similarities in code, software, OS, and even hardware increase the likelihood of attackers exploiting publicly known vulnerabilities to target multiple systems.

2. Weak Passwords

Placing weak passwords or not changing them regularly can result in the exposure of assets, making them vulnerable to data breaches through brute force attacks.

3. People

Social engineering techniques can manipulate users into giving up confidential information like credentials, which can easily be used to gain unauthorized access and steal data.

4. OS Flaws

Flaws present in the operating system can allow malicious users to gain access and inject malware or viruses to obtain data or money.

5. Connectivity

The more connected a system is to the internet, the more susceptible it is to vulnerabilities, such as network attacks or exploitation of software vulnerabilities.

6. Complex Systems

Intricate systems are more prone to vulnerabilities, including misconfigurations, flaws, or unintended access.

7. Software Bugs

Vulnerabilities or bugs left in place intentionally or unintentionally can leave systems vulnerable to attacks. When patches are released to cover such vulnerabilities, failure to update the software can leave systems vulnerable.

By understanding the common reasons for cybersecurity vulnerabilities, individuals and organizations can take steps to mitigate them and improve their cybersecurity posture.

Methods for Identifying Vulnerabilities

In cybersecurity, there are two commonly used methods for finding flaws or vulnerabilities: vulnerability scans and penetration tests. Each of these methods has its own advantages and disadvantages, and different types of scans and tests can be performed.

  1. Vulnerability Scans

A vulnerability scan involves using a scanning tool to analyze a system's security and identify any vulnerabilities that could impact its security. These scans are typically performed using automated vulnerability scanners.

One advantage of vulnerability scans is that they can be performed multiple times as needed, as they are usually faster to conduct. However, it's important to note that they may not be as comprehensive and can produce false positives.

There are two main types of vulnerability scans:

  • Scans behind logins:

These scans are performed with access to the internal system using credentials. They are more comprehensive and can identify vulnerabilities in operating systems, installed software, and missing security patches.

  • Unauthenticated scans:

These scans imitate the techniques used by hackers to analyze the exterior security posture of a system. They may produce false positives, but they can also help identify vulnerabilities that could result in a data breach or leak.

  1. Penetration Tests

A penetration test involves exploiting vulnerabilities identified during a vulnerability scan. Ethical hackers are hired to attempt to break into the target system using potential vulnerabilities found.

The discovery of an exploitable vulnerability indicates that the target system's security has been compromised. Once the penetration test is complete, a report is generated with the findings and recommendations for remediation.

Penetration tests are more comprehensive than vulnerability scans and provide more insight into the impact of vulnerabilities if exploited. However, they are more expensive and time-consuming to perform.

Penetration tests can be performed manually or using automated tools.

  • Manual Penetration Tests:

These tests are performed by qualified ethical hackers and are more comprehensive in terms of identifying vulnerabilities with a lower chance of false positives.

  • Automated Penetration Tests:

These tests use penetration testing tools, which are capable of detecting vulnerabilities and attempting to exploit them using known pre-programmed techniques.

At INVESICS, we offer a comprehensive Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing (VAPT) service to help businesses identify and address vulnerabilities in their systems. Our team of cybersecurity experts uses a combination of automated tools and manual testing techniques to provide a comprehensive and accurate analysis of your systems' security posture. Contact us today to learn more about how we can help you secure your business.


In conclusion, this blog has provided a comprehensive explanation of what a vulnerability is and the different factors that contribute to its existence. We have discussed the types of vulnerabilities and their classification based on the systems they impact.

By understanding the nature of vulnerabilities, you are now well-equipped to take proactive measures to identify and mitigate them. It is essential to regularly scan your systems and conduct penetration tests to ensure your assets are secure.

As a trusted provider of Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing (VAPT) services, we can help you safeguard your systems against potential cyber threats. Contact us today to learn more about how we can assist you in securing your assets.